Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book

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Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

By National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
  • ISBN Code: : 0309142393
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Pages : 348
  • Category : Law
  • Reads : 634
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : strengthening-forensic-science-in-the-united-states.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

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Failed Evidence

By David A. Harris
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : NYU Press
  • Book Code : 0814744664
  • Total of Pages : 269
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 613
  • Pdf File: failed-evidence.pdf

Book Short Summary:

With the popularity of crime dramas like CSI focusing on forensic science, and increasing numbers of police and prosecutors making wide-spread use of DNA, high-tech science seems to have become the handmaiden of law enforcement. But this is a myth,asserts law professor and nationally known expert on police profiling David A. Harris. In fact, most of law enforcement does not embrace science—it rejects it instead, resisting it vigorously. The question at the heart of this book is why. »» Eyewitness identifications procedures using simultaneous lineups—showing the witness six persons together,as police have traditionally done—produces a significant number of incorrect identifications. »» Interrogations that include threats of harsh penalties and untruths about the existence of evidence proving the suspect’s guilt significantly increase the prospect of an innocent person confessing falsely. »» Fingerprint matching does not use probability calculations based on collected and standardized data to generate conclusions, but rather human interpretation and judgment.Examiners generally claim a zero rate of error – an untenable claim in the face of publicly known errors by the best examiners in the U.S. Failed Evidence explores the real reasons that police and prosecutors resist scientific change, and it lays out a concrete plan to bring law enforcement into the scientific present. Written in a crisp and engaging style, free of legal and scientific jargon, Failed Evidence will explain to police and prosecutors, political leaders and policy makers, as well as other experts and anyone else who cares about how law enforcement does its job, where we should go from here. Because only if we understand why law enforcement resists science will we be able to break through this resistance and convince police and prosecutors to rely on the best that science has to offer. Justice demands no less. Visit the author's blog here.

Pioneers in Forensic Science

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1351655868
  • Total of Pages : 304
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 479
  • Pdf File: pioneers-in-forensic-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book highlights the contributions of leading forensic science practitioners, iconic figures who have been integral in both establishing current scientific and medicolegal practices and innovative evidence collection, testing, and analysis methods. Such professionals include Henry Lee, Michael Baden, William Bass, Jay Siegel, John Butler, Cyril Wecht, Vincent Di Maio, Marcella Fierro, Barry Fisher, and more. Previously unpublished interviews with these pioneers in the field, expressly undertaken for the purposes this book, examine the last 30 years—past trends that have shaped the field—as well as current and emerging trends that have, and will shape, the future of forensic science.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0128193956
  • Total of Pages : 300
  • Category : Law
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  • Pdf File: methodological-and-technological-advances-in-death-investigations.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Methodological and Technological Advances in Death Investigations: Application and Case Studies focuses on advancements in both methods and technology in death investigations. Specifically, in the areas of latent fingerprints, facial recognition, wildlife forensics, using aerial vehicles and 3D-ID. The combination of national and international authors and a discussion of the state of forensic science over a decade after the National Academies 2009 Report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, further highlights the boundaries, limitations and context in which these newer technologies and applications act synergistically to enhance forensic science. Synthesizes new and emerging technologies to put them in perspective for researchers and practitioners, such as facial recognition, using aerial vehicles and 3D-ID Includes case studies throughout that explain how certain advanced technologies impact investigations Fills a gap in literature with more cross-disciplinary topics that pertain to death investigations

Support for Forensic Science Research

By National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Strengthening Forensic Science at the National Institute of Justice
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 0309376483
  • Total of Pages : 116
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 688
  • Pdf File: support-for-forensic-science-research.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Reliable and valid forensic science analytic techniques are critical to a credible, fair, and evidence-based criminal justice system. There is widespread agreement that the scientific foundation of some currently available forensic science methods needs strengthening and that additional, more efficient techniques are urgently needed. These needs can only be met through sustained research programs explicitly designed to ensure and improve the reliability and validity of current methods and to foster the development and use of new and better techniques. This task is challenging due to the broad nature of the field. Concerns have been raised repeatedly about the ability of the criminal justice system to collect and analyze evidence efficiently and to be fair in its verdicts. Although significant progress has been made in some forensic science disciplines, the forensic science community still faces many challenges. Federal leadership, particularly in regard to research and the scientific validation of forensic science methods, is needed to help meet the pressing issues facing state and local jurisdictions. This report reviews the progress made by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to advance forensic science research since the 2009 report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the 2010 report, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. Support for Forensic Science Research examines the ways in which NIJ develops its forensic science research priorities and communicates those priorities as well as its findings to the scientific and forensic practitioner communities in order to determine the impact of NIJ forensic science research programs and how that impact can be enhanced.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0128006234
  • Total of Pages : 390
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 890
  • Pdf File: professional-issues-in-forensic-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field. Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues. Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions

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  • Pdf File: automated-fingerprint-identification-systems.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An easy-to-understand synopsis of identification systems, presenting in simple language the process of fingerprint identification, from the initial capture of a set of finger images, to the production of a Rapsheet. No other single work exists which reviews this important identification process from beginning to end. We examine the identification process for latent (crime scene) prints and how they are identified with these systems. While the primary focus is automated fingerprint identifications, the book also touches on the emergence and use of fingerprints in other biometric systems. Criminal justice administrators, policy makers, and students of forensic science and criminal justice will find a reference to the known limitations and advantages of these systems. This book provides information as to the critical and continual need for properly trained individuals as well as an understanding of the direct and indirect costs associated with maintaining these systems. An understanding of the entire system and what it means will prove invaluable. Why are there missed identifications? Why are identifications made on one database that are not made on another database? Key terms and issues are included, and well as suggestions for improving the overall number of identifications. The book will go beyond process and also discuss issues such as interoperability, management strategies for large databases, contract development, lights out verification and several other issues which impact automated identifications. - The first comprehensive title on this subject area - Outlines in detail the entire process of fingerprint gathering and identity verification - The future of AFIS will is discussed, including national standards in developing multi-agency cooperation/interoperability (U.S.) in addition to the use of AFIS identification world-wide.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : SAGE Publications
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  • Pdf File: the-social-history-of-crime-and-punishment-in-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Several encyclopedias overview the contemporary system of criminal justice in America, but full understanding of current social problems and contemporary strategies to deal with them can come only with clear appreciation of the historical underpinnings of those problems. Thus, this five-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services. Among other things, this encyclopedia: explicates philosophical foundations underpinning our system of justice; charts changing patterns in criminal activity and subsequent effects on legal responses; identifies major periods in the development of our system of criminal justice; and explores in the first four volumes - supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents - evolving debates and conflicts on how best to address issues of crime and punishment. Its signed entries in the first four volumes--supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents--provide the historical context for students to better understand contemporary criminological debates and the contemporary shape of the U.S. system of law and justice.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0123850207
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  • Pdf File: ethics-in-forensic-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This work will draw upon the expertise of the editors as authors and various contributors in order to present several different perspectives with the goal of approaching and understanding when ethical lines are crossed. In order to achieve this goal, comparisons of various canons of ethics from related fields such as medicine, law, the military, science and politics will be examined and applied. Case studies will be presented throughout to illustrate ethical dilemmas and challenge the reader with the goal of greater understanding. First book to comprehensively address ethics in forensics beyond the laboratory Real-life cases presented involving unethical behavior to illustrate concepts Discusses ethical considerations while delineating opinion from fact in testimony Places forensic ethics within the canons of the legal and medical systems

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 012802738X
  • Total of Pages : 392
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  • Pdf File: forensic-science-reform.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Forensic Science Reform: Protecting the Innocent is written for the nonscientist to help make complicated scientific information clear and concise enough for attorneys and judges to master. This volume covers physical forensic science, namely arson, shaken baby syndrome, non-accidental trauma, bite marks, DNA, ballistics, comparative bullet lead analysis, fingerprint analysis, and hair and fiber analysis, and contains valuable contributions from leading experts in the field of forensic science. Offers training for prosecuting attorneys on the present state of the forensic sciences in order to avoid reliance on legal precedent that lags decades behind the science Provides defense attorneys the knowledge to defend their clients against flawed science Arms innocence projects and appellate attorneys with the latest information to challenge convictions that were obtained using faulty science Uses science-specific case studies to simplify issues in forensic science for the legal professional Offers a detailed overview of both the failures and progress made in the forensic sciences, making the volume ideal for law school courses covering wrongful convictions, or for undergraduate courses on law, legal ethics, or forensics

Blinding as a Solution to Bias

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0128026332
  • Total of Pages : 388
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 579
  • Pdf File: blinding-as-a-solution-to-bias.pdf

Book Short Summary:

What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes play. However, commonly proposed solutions to biased decision-making, such as transparency (disclosing conflicts) or exclusion (avoiding conflicts) do not directly solve the underlying problem of bias and may have unintended consequences. Robertson and Kesselheim bring together a renowned group of interdisciplinary scholars to consider another way to reduce the risk of biased decision-making: blinding. What are the advantages and limitations of blinding? How can we quantify the biases in unblinded research? Can we develop new ways to blind decision-makers? What are the ethical problems with withholding information from decision-makers in the course of blinding? How can blinding be adapted to legal and scientific procedures and in institutions not previously open to this approach? Fundamentally, these sorts of questions—about who needs to know what—open new doors of inquiry for the design of scientific research studies, regulatory institutions, and courts. The volume surveys the theory, practice, and future of blinding, drawing upon leading authors with a diverse range of methodologies and areas of expertise, including forensic sciences, medicine, law, philosophy, economics, psychology, sociology, and statistics. Introduces readers to the primary policy issue this book seeks to address: biased decision-making. Provides a focus on blinding as a solution to bias, which has applicability in many domains. Traces the development of blinding as a solution to bias, and explores the different ways blinding has been employed. Includes case studies to explore particular uses of blinding for statisticians, radiologists, and fingerprint examiners, and whether the jurors and judges who rely upon them will value and understand blinding.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135077444
  • Total of Pages : 334
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: wrongful-conviction-and-criminal-justice-reform.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform is an important addition to the literature and teaching on innocence reform. This book delves into wrongful convictions studies but expands upon them by offering potential reforms that would alleviate the problem of wrongful convictions in the criminal justice system. Written to be accessible to students, Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform is a main text for wrongful convictions courses or a secondary text for more general courses in criminal justice, political science, and law school innocence clinics.

Blind Injustice

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Book Code : 0520962958
  • Total of Pages : 264
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 402
  • Pdf File: blind-injustice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In this unprecedented view from the trenches, prosecutor turned champion for the innocent Mark Godsey takes us inside the frailties of the human mind as they unfold in real-world wrongful convictions. Drawing upon stories from his own career, Godsey shares how innate psychological flaws in judges, police, lawyers, and juries coupled with a “tough on crime” environment can cause investigations to go awry, leading to the convictions of innocent people. In Blind Injustice, Godsey explores distinct psychological human weaknesses inherent in the criminal justice system—confirmation bias, memory malleability, cognitive dissonance, bureaucratic denial, dehumanization, and others—and illustrates each with stories from his time as a hard-nosed prosecutor and then as an attorney for the Ohio Innocence Project. He also lays bare the criminal justice system’s internal political pressures. How does the fact that judges, sheriffs, and prosecutors are elected officials influence how they view cases? How can defense attorneys support clients when many are overworked and underpaid? And how do juries overcome bias leading them to believe that police and expert witnesses know more than they do about what evidence means? This book sheds a harsh light on the unintentional yet routine injustices committed by those charged with upholding justice. Yet in the end, Godsey recommends structural, procedural, and attitudinal changes aimed at restoring justice to the criminal justice system.

Emerging and Advanced Technologies in Diverse Forensic Sciences

By Ronn Johnson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351838865
  • Total of Pages : 332
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 856
  • Pdf File: emerging-and-advanced-technologies-in-diverse-forensic-sciences.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An important contribution to the professional work performed in the areas on emerging technologies, this book provides an extensive expansion of the literature base on contemporary theories and investigative techniques used in the forensic sciences. Forensic science, as a relatively new field of research still actively identifying itself in the larger landscape of the sciences, has been sharply criticized for utilizing techniques deemed largely unscientific by subject area experts. This book presents a collective analysis and review of the existing challenges as well as directions for state-of-the-art practices found in diverse forensic settings, enabling the reader to make an informed decision about the scientific validity of forensic techniques, and emphasizes the need for a greater understanding of the use of the most appropriate methodology and procedures. The contributors address cutting-edge, developing, and even hypothetical techniques and technologies in forensics research and practice, especially as it relates to the sphere of criminal justice and law enforcement in contemporary society. A useful work for forensics professionals, and students and scholars working in the fields of politics and technology, criminal justice, forensic psychology, police psychology, law enforcement, and forensic science.

Controversies in Innocence Cases in America

By Sarah Lucy Cooper
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317160037
  • Total of Pages : 246
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 446
  • Pdf File: controversies-in-innocence-cases-in-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Controversies in Innocence Cases in America brings together leading experts on the investigation, litigation, and scholarly analysis of innocence cases in America, from legal, political and ethical perspectives. The contributors, many of whom work on these cases daily, investigate contemporary issues presented by innocence cases and the exoneration movement as a whole. These issues include the challenges faced by the movement, causes of wrongful convictions, problems associated with investigating, proving, and defining 'innocence', and theories of reform. Each issue is placed within a multi-disciplinary perspective to provide cogent observations and recommendations for the effective handling of these cases, and for what changes should be adopted in order to improve the American criminal justice system when it is faced with its most harrowing sight: an innocent defendant.

Death Investigation in America

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  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Book Code : 0674054067
  • Total of Pages : 300
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  • Pdf File: death-investigation-in-america.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Why is the American system of death investigation so inconsistent and inadequate? In this unique political and cultural history, Jeffrey Jentzen draws on archives, interviews, and his own career as a medical examiner to look at the way that a long-standing professional and political rivalry controls public medical knowledge and public health.

Blood, Powder, and Residue

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  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Book Code : 069120585X
  • Total of Pages : 248
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  • Pdf File: blood-powder-and-residue.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A rare behind-the-scenes look at the work of forensic scientists The findings of forensic science—from DNA profiles and chemical identifications of illegal drugs to comparisons of bullets, fingerprints, and shoeprints—are widely used in police investigations and courtroom proceedings. While we recognize the significance of this evidence for criminal justice, the actual work of forensic scientists is rarely examined and largely misunderstood. Blood, Powder, and Residue goes inside a metropolitan crime laboratory to shed light on the complex social forces that underlie the analysis of forensic evidence. Drawing on eighteen months of rigorous fieldwork in a crime lab of a major metro area, Beth Bechky tells the stories of the forensic scientists who struggle to deliver unbiased science while under intense pressure from adversarial lawyers, escalating standards of evidence, and critical public scrutiny. Bechky brings to life the daily challenges these scientists face, from the painstaking screening and testing of evidence to making communal decisions about writing up the lab report, all while worrying about attorneys asking them uninformed questions in court. She shows how the work of forensic scientists is fraught with the tensions of serving justice—constantly having to anticipate the expectations of the world of law and the assumptions of the public—while also staying true to their scientific ideals. Blood, Powder, and Residue offers a vivid and sometimes harrowing picture of the lives of highly trained experts tasked with translating their knowledge for others who depend on it to deliver justice.

Critical Forensic Studies

By Roberta Julian,Loene Howes,Rob White
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 0429013302
  • Total of Pages : 314
  • Category : Law
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  • Pdf File: critical-forensic-studies.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging interdisciplinary field of critical forensic studies. It reviews existing research and scholarship on forensic science from a critical social science perspective, while forging a blueprint for further work in this area. Forensic science has long captured the public imagination, as evidenced by the popularity of many novels, television programmes, and true-crime podcasts. At the same time, its role in the criminal justice system has been the subject of critique from scholars and practitioners in diverse fields. In response, the international forensic science community has become more involved in the scrutiny of its own knowledge and practices in relation to criminal justice objectives. Moving beyond a discussion of forensic science as a suite of specialised scientific disciplines that aim to provide evidence to the courts, Critical Forensic Studies offers critical insights relevant to a wide range of social actors in the criminal justice system. Core content includes: • the history and public understandings of forensic science • the professionalisation of forensic science • forensic science as a social process • crime scene examination and forensic intelligence • experts and evidence in court • technological advances and human rights • interdisciplinary knowledge, practice and research This book is essential reading for forensic and criminal justice practitioners and students across criminology, sociology, forensic science, law, and psychology.

Manitoba Law Journal: A Review of the Current Legal Landscape 2011 Volume 35(1)

By Darcy L. MacPherson, et al.
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  • Publisher : Manitoba Law Journal
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 304
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 483
  • Pdf File: manitoba-law-journal.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Manitoba Law Journal is a peer-reviewed journal founded in 1961. The MLJ's current mission is to provide lively, independent and high caliber commentary on legal events in Manitoba or events of special interest to our community. This issue has articles from a variety of contributing authors including: Beverley McLachlin, Brenlee Carrington Trepel, Bryan P. Schwartz, Darcy L. MacPherson, David Milward, Debra Parkes, Edward D. Brown, Gerald P. Heckman, Greg T. Smith, Jean-Pierre Hachey, John Irvine, Keith Lenton, Mark C. Power, Mathieu Stanton, Melanie R. Bueckert, Michel Bastarache, and Soren Frederiksen.

A Guide to Forensic DNA Profiling

By Scott Bader
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1118751507
  • Total of Pages : 456
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 620
  • Pdf File: a-guide-to-forensic-dna-profiling.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The increasingly arcane world of DNA profiling demands that those needing to understand at least some of it must find a source of reliable and understandable information. Combining material from the successful Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science with newly commissioned and updated material, the Editors have used their own extensive experience in criminal casework across the world to compile an informative guide that will provide knowledge and thought-provoking articles of interest to anyone involved or interested in the use of DNA in the forensic context. Following extensive introductory chapters covering forensic DNA profiling and forensic genetics, this comprehensive volume presents a substantial breadth of material covering: Fundamental material – including sources of DNA, validation, and accreditation Analysis and interpretation – including, extraction, quantification, amplification and interpretation of electropherograms (epgs) Evaluation – including mixtures, low template, and transfer Applications – databases, paternity and kinship, mitochondrial-DNA, wildlife DNA, single-nucleotide polymorphism, phenotyping and familial searching Court - report writing, discovery, cross examination, and current controversies With contributions from leading experts across the whole gamut of forensic science, this volume is intended to be authoritative but not authoritarian, informative but comprehensible, and comprehensive but concise. It will prove to be a valuable addition, and useful resource, for scientists, lawyers, teachers, criminologists, and judges.

Status and Needs of Forensic Science Service Providers: A Report to Congress

By
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Book Code : 1428964908
  • Total of Pages : 33
  • Category : Crime laboratories
  • Members : 232
  • Pdf File: status-and-needs-of-forensic-science-service-providers.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book Status and Needs of Forensic Science Service Providers: A Report to Congress

The Global Practice of Forensic Science

By Douglas H. Ubelaker
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1118724224
  • Total of Pages : 400
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 962
  • Pdf File: the-global-practice-of-forensic-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Global Practice of Forensic Science presents histories,issues, patterns, and diversity in the applications ofinternational forensic science. Written by 64 experienced andinternationally recognized forensic scientists, the volumedocuments the practice of forensic science in 28 countries fromAfrica, the Americas, Asia, Australia and Europe. Eachcountry’s chapter explores factors of political history,academic linkages, the influence of individual cases, facilitydevelopment, types of cases examined, integration within forensicscience, recruitment, training, funding, certification,accreditation, quality control, technology, disaster preparedness,legal issues, research and future directions. Aimed at allscholars interested in international forensic science, the volumeprovides detail on the diverse fields within forensic science andtheir applications around the world.

The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Process

By Darryl K. Brown,Jenia Iontcheva Turner,Bettina Weisser
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190659866
  • Total of Pages : 952
  • Category : Law
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  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-criminal-process.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Process surveys the topics and issues in the field of criminal process, including the laws, institutions, and practices of the criminal justice administration. The process begins with arrests or with crime investigation such as searches for evidence. It continues through trial or some alternative form of adjudication such as plea bargaining that may lead to conviction and punishment, and it includes post-conviction events such as appeals and various procedures for addressing miscarriages of justice. Across more than 40 chapters, this Handbook provides a descriptive overview of the subject sufficient to serve as a durable reference source, and more importantly to offer contemporary critical or analytical perspectives on those subjects by leading scholars in the field. Topics covered include history, procedure, investigation, prosecution, evidence, adjudication, and appeal.

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science

By Robin T. Bowen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1498777163
  • Total of Pages : 254
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 814
  • Pdf File: ethics-and-the-practice-of-forensic-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

While one would hope that forensic scientists, investigators, and experts are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have morality as varied as the general population. These professionals confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Since the publication of the first edition of Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, the field of forensic science has continued to see its share of controversy. This runs the gamut of news stories from investigators, lab personnel, or even lab directors falsifying results, committing perjury, admitting to fraud, to overturned convictions, questions about bias, ethics, and what constitutes an "expert" on the witness stand. This fully updated edition tackles all these issues—including some specific instances and cases of unethical behavior—and addresses such salient issues as accreditation requirements, standardization of ethical codes, examiner certification, and standards for education and training. The new edition provides: A new chapter on the "Ferguson Effect" faced by the criminal justice system The context of forensic science ethics in relation to general scientific ethics, measurement uncertainty, and ethics in criminal justice Ethical conundrums and real-world examples that forensic scientists confront every day The ethics and conduct codes of 20 different forensic and scientific professional organizations An outline of the National Academies of Science (NAS) recommendations and progress made on ethics in forensic science since the release of the NAS report Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the forensic sciences—highlights the complicated nature of ethics and decision-making at the crime scene, in the lab, and in the courts. The book serves both as an essential resource for laboratories to train their employees and as an invaluable textbook for the growing number of courses on ethics in criminal justice and forensic science curricula. Accompanying PowerPoint® slides and an Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank are available to professors upon qualifying course adoption.

Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation

By Barry A. J. Fisher,David R. Fisher
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1498758169
  • Total of Pages : 480
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 426
  • Pdf File: techniques-of-crime-scene-investigation.pdf

Book Short Summary:

"Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation is a staple for any forensic science library and is routinely referenced by professional organizations as a study guide for certifications. It is professionally written and provides updated theoretical and practical applications using real casework. This text is a must-have for any CSI Unit or course teaching Crime Scene Investigation." – Kevin Parmelee, PhD, Detective (ret.), Somerset County, NJ Prosecutor’s Office Since the first English-language edition of Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation was published in 1964, the book has continued to be a seminal work in the field of forensic science, serving as a foundational textbook and reference title for professionals. This Ninth Edition includes several new chapters and has been fully updated and organized to present the effective use of science and technology in support of justice. New coverage to this edition addresses the debunking of a few forensic science disciplines, long thought to have been based on sound science. The book provides students, crime scene investigators, forensic scientists, and attorneys the proper ways to examine crime scenes and collect a wide variety of physical evidence that may be encountered. While it is not possible to cover every imaginable situation, this book is a comprehensive guide that details and promotes best practices and recommendations. In today’s challenging environment, it is essential that law enforcement personnel thoroughly understand and meticulously comply with the forensic evidence procedures that apply to their function in the investigation process. Criminal investigations remain as complex as ever and require professionals from many disciplines to work cooperatively toward the fair and impartial delivery of justice. Practitioners and students alike need to be aware of the increased scrutiny that they will face in the judicial system. Judges are taking a more involved role than ever before as far as the evidence and testimony that they allow into their courtrooms. No longer will substandard forensic science or crime scene investigation be acceptable. Key features: Newly reorganized contents—including 4 brand new chapters—reflects a more logical flow of crime scene processes and procedures Provides an overview of the crime scene investigation process and procedures, from the first officer on the scene through the adjudication of the case Includes several new cases, photos, and updates in technological advances in both digital evidence and DNA in particular Science and technology applied to CSI solves crimes and saves lives. Investigators, prosecutors, and defense attorneys must be able to use forensic tools and resources to their fullest potential and Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation serves as an invaluable resource to further this cause.

Forensic Testimony

By C. Michael Bowers
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0123972604
  • Total of Pages : 296
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 623
  • Pdf File: forensic-testimony.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Forensic Testimony: Science, Law and Expert Evidence—favored with an Honorable Mention in Law & Legal Studies at the Association of American Publishers' 2015 PROSE Awards—provides a clear and intuitive discussion of the legal presentation of expert testimony. The book delves into the effects, processes, and battles that occur in the presentation of opinion and scientific evidence by court-accepted forensic experts. It provides a timely review of the United States Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) regarding expert testimony, and includes a multi-disciplinary look at the strengths and weaknesses in forensic science courtroom testimony. The statutes and the effects of judicial uses (or non-use) of the FRE, Daubert, Kumho, and the 2009 NAS Report on Forensic Science are also included. The presentation expands to study case law, legal opinions, and studies on the reliability and pitfalls of forensic expertise in the US court system. This book is an essential reference for anyone preparing to give expert testimony of forensic evidence. Honorable Mention in the 2015 PROSE Awards in Law & Legal Studies from the Association of American Publishers A multi-disciplinary forensic reference examining the strengths and weaknesses of forensic science in courtroom testimony Focuses on forensic testimony and judicial decisions in light of the Federal Rules of Evidence, case interpretations, and the NAS report findings Case studies, some from the Innocence Project, assist the reader in distinguishing good testimony from bad

Courtroom Testimony for Fingerprint Examiners

By Hillary Moses Daluz
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1000421589
  • Total of Pages : 266
  • Category : Political Science
  • Members : 592
  • Pdf File: courtroom-testimony-for-fingerprint-examiners.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Fingerprint examiners today are expected to develop, research and defend the scientific basis of their conclusions. Recent emphasis placed on scientific rigor and transparency through documentation has created a culture shift in the field. Many examiners are baffled by the resulting cultural, procedural and scientific distinctions, often becoming overwhelmed when required to testify as an expert witness to explain such concepts in the courtroom. Courtroom Testimony for Fingerprint Examiners addresses all aspects of courtroom testimony as the first book to focus solely on testifying on fingerprint evidence as a comparative science. The book is presented in two parts. Section I addresses general expert witnessing for forensic scientists. This serves as a primer for the novice or a review for experienced witnesses covering such topics as the structure of the criminal justice system and federal rules of evidence, the role of the expert witness, testimony as teaching, presenting challenging scientific concepts to the layperson, court preparation, the three phases of expert witness testimony and landmark court decisions that have shaped the modern landscape of forensic testimony. Section II focuses on specific issues affecting fingerprint examiners and how to field questions during both direct and cross-examination. While such "hot button" topics are absent from currently available texts, this section pays particular attention to these salient, emerging topics. This includes evidentiary challenges to fingerprint evidence, relevant publications such as the PCAST report, nomenclature and standards development, issues surrounding cognitive bias and subjectivity, probability models, error rates and cases of error and how to address issues of minimum point standards in both the empirical and holistic traditions. Both Section I and Section II provide examples and present innovations applicable to latent and tenprint examiners. Features include: Presents a history of fingerprint evidence and current best practices and limits on characterizing fingerprint evidence in court, including appropriate nomenclature Provides current guidelines and recommendations for standards and the courtroom Illustrates how experts can work with attorneys so that the testimony process educates and informs jurors and judges rather than perpetuating an adversarial dynamic Addresses important issues such as cognitive bias, subjectivity, error rates, probability models and ethics As a forensic training instructor for professionals – and previously as a college professor – author Hillary Moses Daluz has spent the past ten years teaching courtroom testimony courses to forensic scientists. Courtroom Testimony for Fingerprint Examiners offers an invaluable resource to forensic scientists, latent print examiners, tenprint examiners, lab personnel in related comparative fields, attorneys, investigative professionals and students enrolled in forensic science university programs.

Pharmacogenomic Testing in Current Clinical Practice

By Alan H. B. Wu,Kiang-Teck J. Yeo
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 1607612836
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Medical
  • Members : 125
  • Pdf File: pharmacogenomic-testing-in-current-clinical-practice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

While the basic principles of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics has been covered by numerous texts, there are none to date that focuses on the specific tests themselves that are in current clinical practice and those that are being proposed for implementation in the near future. Pharmacogenomic Testing in Current Clinical Practice: Implementation in the Clinical Laboratory focuses almost entirely on the specifics of each test that is needed to implement these tests into a clinical laboratory. This volume presents the first compilation of the tests currently in routine clinical use. The chapter authors of this unique and invaluable title comprise a range of renowned authorities and investigators who have conducted the essential clinical trials necessary to justify pharmacogenomic testing today. The book is divided into four parts: Basic Concepts, Specific Pharmacogenomic Targets, Drugs that Cause Delayed Hypersensitivity, and Miscellaneous Drugs. Each author provides a pharmacologic background on the target drug, the need for pharmacogenomic testing, and how results can be translated into clinical decisions. Where appropriate, case studies are given to illustrate typical clinical scenarios. An extensive bibliography is provided so that the reader can refer to the original studies. This well-designed resource will appeal to clinical laboratory directors who are contemplating or assigned the task of establishing a pharmacogenomics laboratory and a wide range of clinicians who must interpret results of testing. Focused and immensely useful, Pharmacogenomic Testing in Current Clinical Practice: Implementation in the Clinical Laboratory is a timely and outstanding contribution to the literature and will be instrumental in defining this rapidly growing field.

The Expert Witness, Forensic Science, and the Criminal Justice Systems of the UK

By S. Lucina Hackman,Fiona Raitt,Sue Black
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Book Code : 1498705707
  • Total of Pages : 162
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 973
  • Pdf File: the-expert-witness-forensic-science-and-the-criminal-justice-systems-of-the-uk.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The global nature of crime often requires expert witnesses to work and present their conclusions in courts outside their home jurisdiction with the corresponding need for them to have an understanding of the different structures and systems operating in other jurisdictions. This book will be a resource for UK professionals, as well as those from overseas testifying internationally, as to the workings of all UK jurisdictions. It also will help researchers and students to better understand the UK legal system.

Forensic Evidence in Court

By Craig Adam
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1119054435
  • Total of Pages : 336
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 394
  • Pdf File: forensic-evidence-in-court.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.

Forensic Odontology

By Thomas J. David,Jim Lewis
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Book Code : 0128052856
  • Total of Pages : 338
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 796
  • Pdf File: forensic-odontology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Forensic Odontology: Principles and Practice details the aspects necessary to become an accomplished forensic odontologist, including an illustration of the skills necessary to become an expert witness. The book is ideal for both the experienced and novice forensic odontologist, covering many fields of expertise, including civil and criminal matters. The civil side involves standard of care and personal injury matters, while the criminal side involves not only dental identification, but management of mass fatality incidents, age assessment, child and elder abuse, and bitemark analysis. Provides a comprehensive review of forensic odontology, including the skills necessary to become a competent expert witness Covers the fields of forensic odontology, the basic skills, legal aspects, legal precedents, report writing and expert witness testimony Includes numerous illustrations, including charts and graphs, along with B&W and color images

Forensic Archaeology

By Kimberlee Sue Moran,Claire L. Gold
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3030032914
  • Total of Pages : 333
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 163
  • Pdf File: forensic-archaeology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book presents the multidisciplinary field of forensic archaeology as complementary but distinct from forensic anthropology. By looking beyond basic excavation methods and skeletal analyses, this book presents the theoretical foundations of forensic archaeology, novel contexts and applications, and demonstrative case studies from practitioners active in the field. Many of the chapters present new approaches and methods not previously covered in other forensic archaeology books, some of which may be of direct use to those conducting criminal investigations.