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The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople in 1453

By Marios Philippides,Walter K. Hanak
  • ISBN Code: : 1317016084
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 816
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 124
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-siege-and-the-fall-of-constantinople-in-1453.pdf

Book Excerpt :

This major study is a comprehensive scholarly work on a key moment in the history of Europe, the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The result of years of research, it presents all available sources along with critical evaluations of these narratives. The authors have consulted texts in all relevant languages, both those that remain only in manuscript and others that have been printed, often in careless and inferior editions. Attention is also given to 'folk history' as it evolved over centuries, producing prominent myths and folktales in Greek, medieval Russian, Italian, and Turkish folklore. Part I, The Pen, addresses the complex questions introduced by this myriad of original literature and secondary sources.

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  • Book Code : 0748694013
  • Total of Pages : 248
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  • Pdf File: edinburgh-history-of-the-greeks-1453-to-1768.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This volume considers the period of Ottoman rule in Greek history in light of changing scholarship about this era and makes it accessible for the first time to a wider audience.

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Book Short Summary:

This book is the author’s second published by Xlibris, the first being Defending Rome: The Masters of the Soldiers, published in 2011. It explores the consequences of two battles fought in 1453 – the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in May and the French victory over the English two months later at Castillon in the last battle of the Hundred Years War. The book considers the impact of these events on a diverse range of topics, including military outcomes, strategic consequences, economic developments, and cultural and religious implications. It concludes by assessing the significance of these two battles in influencing the transition of Europe from the medieval to the modern age.

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Book Short Summary:

This edition covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD. The author gives the complete insight into the fascinating empire which was characterized by Roman state traditions, Greek culture and language; and Orthodox Christianity. Among the greatest accomplishments of the Empire, the author emphasizes its contribution to the formation of the medieval Europe, its major role in shaping Orthodoxy and transmission of classical knowledge. Contents: Byzantium The Foundation of Constantinople The Fight With the Goths The Departure of the Germans The Reorganization of the Eastern Empire Justinian Justinian's Foreign Conquests The End of Justinian's Reign The Coming of the Slavs The Darkest Hour Social and Religious Life The Coming of the Saracens The First Anarchy The Saracens Turned Back The Iconoclasts The End of the Iconoclasts The Literary Emperors and Their Time Military Glory The End of the Macedonian Dynasty Manzikert The Comneni and the Crusades The Latin Conquest of Constantinople The Latin Empire and the Empire of Nicaea Decline and Decay The Turks in Europe. The End of a Long Tale Table of Emperors

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There can be no doubt that military conflict between France and England dominated European history in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This war is of considerable interest both because of its duration and the number of theatres in which it was fought. In this book, Hundred Years' War expert Dr Anne Curry reveals how the war can reveal much about the changing nature of warfare: the rise of infantry and the demise of the knight; the impact of increased use of gunpowder and the effect of the wars on generations of people around it.

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Book Short Summary:

If Richard III had not charged to his death at Bosworth, how different might the history of Britain have been? Beginning in 1453 and ending in 1487, The Red Rose and the White provides a gripping overview of the bitter dynastic struggle for supremacy that raged between the houses of York and Lancaster for thirty years, culminating in the dramatic events on Bosworth Field in 1485. As well as offering a comprehensive account of the campaigns, battles and sieges of the conflict, the book also assesses the commanders and men involved and considers the weapons and tactics employed. Photographs, maps and portraits of the principal characters help to bring the period to life, whilst the fast-paced narrative conveys a sense of what it was actually like to fight in battles such as Towton or Tewkesbury the effect of the arrow storm and the grim realities of hand-to-hand combat with edged and bladed weapons. Skilfully weaving in political and social events to place the conflict in its context, The Red Rose and the White is a fascinating exploration of the turbulent period that would change the course of British history forever.

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Book Short Summary:

Half a millennium of European warfare brilliantly retold by masterly historian Brendan Simms At the heart of Europe's history lies a puzzle. In most of the world humankind has created enormous political frameworks, whether ancient (such as China) or modern (such as the United States). Sprawling empires, kingdoms or republics appear to be the norm. By contrast Europe has remained stubbornly chaotic and fractured into often amazingly tiny pieces, with each serious attempt to unify the continent (by Charles V, Napoleon and Hitler) thwarted. In this marvelously ambitious and exciting new book, Brendan Simms tells the story of Europe's constantly shifting geopolitics and the peculiar circumstances that have made it both so impossible to dominate, but also so dynamic and ferocious. It is the story of a group of highly competitive and mutually suspicious dynasties, but also of a continent uniquely prone to interference from 'semi-detached' elements, such as Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain and (just as centrally to Simms' argument) the United States. Europe: The Struggle for Supremacy will become the standard work on this crucial subject - and an extremely enjoyable one. Reviews: 'This is a brilliant and beautifully written history. From the Holy Roman Empire to the Euro, Brendan Simms shows that one of the constant preoccupations of Europeans has always been the geography, the power and the needs of Germany. Europe is a work of extraordinary scholarship delivered with the lightest of touches. It will be essential, absorbing reading for anyone trying to understand both the past and the present of one of the most productive and most dangerous continents on earth' William Shawcross 'World history is German history, and German history is world history.This is the powerful case made by this gifted historian of Europe, whose expansive erudition revives the proud tradition of the history of geopolitics, and whose immanent moral sensibility reminds us that human choices made in Berlin (and London) today about the future of Europe might be decisive for the future of the world' Timothy Snyder (author of Bloodlands) About the author: Brendan Simms is Professor of the History of International Relations at the University of Cambridge. His major books include Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia (shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize) and Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire.

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  • Pdf File: the-hundred-years-war.pdf

Book Short Summary:

From 1337 to 1453 England repeatedly invaded France on the pretext that her kings had a right to the French throne. Though it was a small, poor country, England for most of those "hundred years" won the battles, sacked the towns and castles, and dominated the war. The protagonists of the Hundred Years War are among the most colorful in European history: Edward III, the Black Prince; Henry V, who was later immortalized by Shakespeare; the splendid but inept John II, who died a prisoner in London; Charles V, who very nearly overcame England; and the enigmatic Charles VII, who at last drove the English out. Desmond Seward's critically-acclaimed account of the Hundred Years War brings to life all of the intrigue, beauty, and royal to-the-death-fighting of that legendary century-long conflict.

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The walls of Constantinople are the greatest surviving example of European medieval military architecture in the world. They withstood numerous sieges until being finally overcome by the artillery of Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, and exist today as a time capsule of Byzantine and Medieval history. This book examines the main defensive system protecting the landward side of the city, which consisted of three parallel walls about 5 miles long. The walls defended the city against intruders, including Attila the Hun, before finally being breached by European knights during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and, ultimately, destroyed by Turkish artillery in 1453.

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Despite the great English victories at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt, the French eventually triumphed in the Hundred Years War. This book examines the last campaign of the war, covering the great battles at Formigny in 1450 and Castillon in 1453, both of which hold an interesting place in military history. The battle of Fornigny saw French cavalry defeat English archers in a reverse of those earlier English victories, while Castillon became the first great success for gunpowder artillery in fixed positions. Finally, the book explains how the seemingly unmartial King Charles VII of France all but drove the English into the sea, succeeding where so many of his predecessors had failed.

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Book Short Summary:

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John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury was the last of the celebrated English commanders of the Hundred Years' War. In his lifetime his reputation for audacity and courage gave him an unrivalled fame among the English, and he was feared and admired by the French. A.J. Pollard, in this pioneering and perceptive account, reconstructs the long career of this extraordinary soldier and offers a fascinating insight into warfare in the late medieval period. Talbot was the last representative of generations of brave, brutal warriors whose appetite for glory and personal gain had sustained English policy in France since the time of Edward III. His defeat and death at the Battle of Castillon on 17 July 1453 marked the end of the wars. It was also the final act in a heroic but savage tradition.

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Book Short Summary:

Tarihin en büyük ve en görkemli kuşatmalarından birini günü gününe ele alan, fetih hazırlıklarını anbean tüm ayrıntılarıyla gözler önüne seren dev bir eser... Bir yanda fethin kumandanları Fatih Sultan Mehmet'ten Zağanos Paşa'ya, manevi mimarları Akşemsettin'den Molla Gürani'ye ve nice isimsiz kahramanlarına kadar tarihi değiştiren kutlu ordunun neferleri... Diğer yanda İmparator Konstantin, Bizans ordusu kumandanı Jüstinyani, Venedikliler, kilise çanlarının umutsuz çığlıklarına sığınan bir halk ve Roma defterini kapatmak üzere olan bir şehir... Çağlar değiştiren Fatih'in ideallerinin, hedeflerinin, fethin gecikmesi karşısında duyduğu öfke ve sabırsızlığının, akın akın şehadete koşan erlerini kaybetmenin verdiği hüznün, tüm bu hengâmede eşi Sittin Hatun'la mektuplara dökülen coşkulu duygularının romanı... Tarih yazmak, o kutlu müjdeye nail olabilmek için yola çıkan bir milletin yürüyüşü...

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Cette vaste synthèse sur le monde musulman du XVe s. à nos jours offre un panorama unique sur l’histoire politique, économique, culturelle et artistique des pays d’Islam. L’ouvrage couvre l’ensemble des territoires concernés : partie occidentale méditerranéenne (Maghreb), partie proche et moyen-orientale (Empire ottoman, Syrie, Irak, péninsule arabique), et partie asiatique (de l’ancienne Perse à l’Asie du Sud-Est). La première partie de l’ouvrage consacrée à la période moderne met en lumière l’âge d’or que connaissent les grands Empires ottoman, iranien et moghol au XVIe et au début du XVIIe s. La seconde partie présente et éclaire l’histoire des pays d’Islam de 1800 à nos jours et souligne les interrogations qu’a fait naître la post-colonisation et l’émergence de nouvelles questions sur les identifications à l’islamité et le rejet de l’autoritarisme politique et libéralisme économique. En offrant des clés pour comprendre et analyser six siècles d’histoire de ces États, l’ouvrage permet de comprendre les enjeux actuels des pays d’Islam. Un important appareil cartographique complète le volume.

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Book Short Summary:

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A magisterial work of gripping history, City of Fortune tells the story of the Venetian ascent from lagoon dwellers to the greatest power in the Mediterranean - an epic five hundred year voyage that encompassed crusade and trade, plague, sea battles and colonial adventure. In Venice, the path to empire unfolded in a series of extraordinary contests - the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, the fight to the finish with Genoa and a desperate defence against the Turks. Under the lion banner of St Mark, she created an empire of ports and naval bases which funnelled the goods of the world through its wharfs. In the process the city became the richest place on earth - a brilliant mosaic fashioned from what it bought, traded, borrowed and stole. Based on first hand accounts of trade and warfare, seafaring and piracy and the places where Venetians sailed and died, City of Fortune is narrative history at its finest. Beginning on Ascension Day in the year 1000 and ending with an explosion off the coast of Greece - and the calamitous news that the Portuguese had pioneered a sea route to India - it will fascinate anyone who loves Venice and the Mediterranean world.

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Book Short Summary:

The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army. This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.

Армагеддон. 1453

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Book Short Summary:

Этот город лишил Григория Ласкаря всего. Здесь, в родных стенах, его объявили предателем, отняли его гордое имя, подвергли постыдной экзекуции и навеки изгнали на чужбину. И после этого, один из лучших и благороднейших сыновей Константинополя, он, назвавшись Зораном из Рагузы, был вынужден стать наемником – сражаться в чужих войнах за чужие деньги. Но вот грянул 1453 год – орды османского султана Мехмеда хлынули на его город. И Григорий, потомок императорской фамилии, забыл прежние обиды. Константинополь не должен пасть! Даже если скоро его будут называть не Константинополь, а Армагеддон...

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Book Short Summary:

Dobytí Cařihradu neboli Konstantinopole osmanskými Turky v roce 1453 je definitivním stvrzením zániku Byzantské říše. Barvitá románová freska slavného finského romanopisce Miky Waltariho líčí poslední měsíce v životě města, náboženské i politické spory a boj o moc. Román je psán formou deníku mladého muže Jeana Angieho, který nedokázal odhalit skutečný smysl své životní pouti a umírá při obraně hroutícího se města. Umírá i jeho životní láska, dcera předního byzantského úředníka, která se obětuje v naivní víře za město i za čest rodu, v němž nechyběla zrada.

Constantinople

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Murray
  • Book Code : 1848546475
  • Total of Pages : 544
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  • Pdf File: constantinople.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Philip Mansel's highly acclaimed history absorbingly charts the interaction between the vibrantly cosmopolitan capital of Constantinople - the city of the world's desire - and its ruling family. In 1453, Mehmed the Conqueror entered Constantinople on a white horse, beginning an Ottoman love affair with the city that lasted until 1924, when the last Caliph hurriedly left on the Orient Express. For almost five centuries Constantinople, with its enormous racial and cultural diversity, was the centre of the dramatic and often depraved story of an extraordinary dynasty.

The Balkans and the Byzantine World before and after the Captures of Constantinople, 1204 and 1453

By Vlada Stanković
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Book Code : 1498513263
  • Total of Pages : 248
  • Category : History
  • Members : 618
  • Pdf File: the-balkans-and-the-byzantine-world-before-and-after-the-captures-of-constantinople-1204-and-1453.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This volume offers new perspectives on the history of the Byzantine Balkans and beyond—regions that lived for centuries under the long shadow of Constantinople—as well as unique insights into the complex world of late medieval and early modern southeastern Europe during a period of catastrophe.

The History of the Middle Ages

By Victor Duruy
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : e-artnow
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages : 821
  • Category : History
  • Members : 824
  • Pdf File: the-history-of-the-middle-ages.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The History of the Middle Ages covers the complete medieval epoch in Europe, both chronologically and geographically. The book starts with the decline of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the great modern monarchies, than it extends from the German invasion at the beginning of the fifth century to the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks ten centuries later in 1453. This carefully crafted ebook is formatted for your eReader with a functional and detailed table of contents.

Warfare in Medieval Europe c.400-c.1453

By Bernard S. Bachrach,David S. Bachrach
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1000429512
  • Total of Pages : 440
  • Category : History
  • Members : 667
  • Pdf File: warfare-in-medieval-europe-c-400-c-1453.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Warfare in Medieval Europe, now in its second edition, offers considerably more attention to the transition from the later Roman Empire to the early Middle Ages, the composition of the armies of the opponents of the West, and the experience of commanders and individual combatants on the battlefield. This second revised and expanded edition provides a more in-depth thematic discussion of the nature and conduct of war, with an emphasis on its overall impact on society, from the late Roman Empire to the end of the Hundred Years’ War. The authors explore the origins of the institutions, physical infrastructure, and intellectual underpinnings of warfare, with chapters on military topography, military technology, logistics, combat, and strategy. Bernard and David Bachrach have also added a new chapter, which provides two detailed campaign narratives that highlight the themes treated throughout the text. The geographical scope of the volume encompasses Latin Europe, the Slavic World, Scandinavia, and the eastern Mediterranean, with a particular focus on the conflict between Western Christianity and the Islamic Near East. Written in an accessible and engaging way, Warfare in Medieval Europe is the ideal resource for all students of the history of medieval warfare.

Fetih 1453

By Eda Bildek
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : SALON YAYINLARI
  • Book Code : 6059831540
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Fiction
  • Members : 634
  • Pdf File: fetih-1453.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Fısılda artık Hünkârım! Susarsan yok olacağım. Konuş ki yangınımla var olayım! Dokun sözcüklerime, hayat bulsun romanım. Çünkü sensin eksikliği satırlarımın... Ben seni yazmak için seçilmiş hattat! Parmaklarıma tutuşturulan kalemin mürekkebinin renginde aşkın kanı... Yazmayı bıraksam kimse adının içimdeki aşkına dokunamayacak... Yine ne garip Hünkârım, seni yazmasam hattatlığım yarım kalacak... Beni kimse anlamayacak. Dahası adımı kimse bilmeyecek... Bir fetih kitabı yazacaktım, kaftanına kapandım. Rüyan ile sınandım... Ağır sınandım. Gözlerimde fırtınalı deniz... Sağ yanımda surlar, sol yanımda aşk... Üstümde bulut... Refakatimde fethi müjdeleyen Akşemseddin'in sesi... İçimde şehla bakışlarının dokunduğu kuyu... Her şey kuyuya dokundu... Ben susuyorum şimdi, sen konuş Sultanım! Ne olur anlat Hünkârım, aşk ile zafere varsın bakışlar...

Imago Turci. Das europäische Türkenbild 1453-1600

By Julius Burghardt
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : GRIN Verlag
  • Book Code : 3656934517
  • Total of Pages : 22
  • Category : History
  • Members : 577
  • Pdf File: imago-turci-das-europäische-türkenbild-1453-1600.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2011 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Weltgeschichte - Moderne Geschichte, Note: 1,0, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (Seminar für Mittlere und Neuere Geschichte), Veranstaltung: Seminar: Die Türkenkriege, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Orient und Okzident, Islam und Christentum – nie waren sich diese einstigen Gegensätze so nah wie heute. Doch dort wo Kulturen aufeinander treffen, kommt es nicht selten zu Reibereien. Die unterschiedlichen Mentalitäten, Traditionen und vor allem Religionen sind oftmals die Quelle tragischer Missverständnisse, die in gewalttätigen Auseinandersetzungen enden können. Viel zu oft stehen Intoleranz und Voreingenommenheit einem friedlichen Miteinander im Wege. Doch woher stammen diese Vorurteile und Feindbilder, die heute jeden christlich-islamischen Dialog erschweren? Um das herauszufinden, müssen wir einen Blick in die Vergangenheit wagen. Die Geschichte der Konfrontation von Morgen- und Abendland reicht bis weit ins Mittelalter zurück. Zwischen beiden Kulturen herrschte seit dem Einfall der Araber in Spanien und Italien ein erbittertes Ringen um die Vorherrschaft in Europa, das mit der Eroberung Jerusalems durch die christlichen Kreuzfahrer 1099 einen ersten blutigen Höhepunkt fand. Die Expansion des Osmanischen Reiches löste schließlich eine neue Eroberungswelle aus, die das Abendland in seinen Grundfesten erschütterte und den westlichen Blick auf den Islam maßgeblich prägte. Moderne Propagandamöglichkeiten verbanden sich mit dem Gefühl einer allgegenwärtigen Bedrohung und erschufen so ein Feindbild jenseits der tatsächlichen historischen Entwicklung. Der Türke, der fortan den Islam verkörperte, wurde zum Symbol für Grausamkeit und Lüsternheit. Es ist das Ziel dieser Hausarbeit, die Entwicklung jenes Türkenbildes im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit darzustellen und die Besonderheiten des anti-türkischen Diskurses herauszuarbeiten.

Die Eroberung von Konstantinopel 1453 und die Transformation der Stadt

By Andreas Freye
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : GRIN Verlag
  • Book Code : 3638511707
  • Total of Pages : 26
  • Category : History
  • Members : 191
  • Pdf File: die-eroberung-von-konstantinopel-1453-und-die-transformation-der-stadt.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich Geschichte Europa - and. Länder - Mittelalter, Frühe Neuzeit, Note: 2,0, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Institut für Mittelalterliche Geschichte), Veranstaltung: Rom und Konstantinopel im Vergleich, 12 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: 1927 erschien Stefan Zweigs Buch „Sternstunden der Menschheit“. Sein populärstes und erfolgreichstes Buch ist eine Sammlung von Texten, die er selbst historische Miniaturen nannte. Eine dieser Miniaturen beschreibt jenen 29. Mai des Jahres 1453, an dem eine vergesse Tür den endgültigen Untergang eines einstigen Weltreiches besiegeln und einem anderen Reich den Höhepunkt seiner Macht bescheren sollte. In dieser Hausarbeit beschäftige ich mich mit der Eroberung von Konstantinopel durch die Osmanen, welche damit das Byzantinische Reich nach mehr als 1100 Jahren endgültig zu Fall brachten. Das Hauptaugenmerk wird neben der Eroberung auf der Transformation der christlichen Hauptstadt in eine islamische Hauptstadt liegen.

The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem

By P.N. Hobson,C.S. Stewart
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9400914539
  • Total of Pages : 719
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 126
  • Pdf File: the-rumen-microbial-ecosystem.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Preface to the first edition of this book explained the reasons for the publication of a comprehensive text on the rumen and rumen microbes in 1988. The microbes of the ruminant's forestomach and those in related organs in other animals and birds provide the means by which herbivorous animals can digest and obtain nutriment from vegetation. In turn, humans have relied, and still do rely, on herbivores for much of their food, clothing and motive power. Herbivores also form the food of carnivorous animals and birds in the wild. The importance of the rumen microorganisms is thus apparent. But, while a knowledge of rumen organisms is not strictly neces sary for the normal, practical feeding of farm animals, in recent years there has been much more emphasis on increasing the productivity of domesti cated animals and in rearing farm animals on unusual feedstuffs. Here, a knowledge of the reactions of the rumen flora, and the limits to these reactions, can be invaluable. In addition, anaerobic rumen-type microor ganisms are found in the intestines of omnivores, including humans, and can be implicated in diseases of humans and animals. They are also found in soils and natural waters, where they playa part in causing pollution and also in reducing it, while the same organisms confined in artificial systems are essential for the purification of sewage and other polluting and toxic wastes.

Contact and Conflict in Frankish Greece and the Aegean, 1204-1453

By Nikolaos G. Chrissis,Mike Carr
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 131716105X
  • Total of Pages : 252
  • Category : History
  • Members : 742
  • Pdf File: contact-and-conflict-in-frankish-greece-and-the-aegean-1204-1453.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade shattered irreversibly the political and cultural unity of the Byzantine world in the Greek peninsula, the Aegean and western Asia Minor. Between the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire after 1204 and the consolidation of Ottoman power in the fifteenth century, the area was a complex political, ethnic and religious mosaic, made up of Frankish lordships, Italian colonies, Turkish beyliks, as well as a number of states that professed to be the continuators of the Byzantine imperial tradition. This volume brings together western medievalists, Byzantinists and Ottomanists, combining recent research in the relevant fields in order to provide a holistic interpretation of this world of extreme fragmentation. Eight stimulating papers explore various factors that defined contact and conflict between Orthodox Greeks, Catholic Latins and Muslim Turks, highlighting common themes that run through this period and evaluating the changes that occurred over time. Particular emphasis is given on the crusades and the way they affected interaction in the area. Although the impact of the crusades on Byzantine history leading up to 1204 has been extensively examined in the past, there has been little research on the way crusading was implemented in Greece and the Aegean after that point. Far from being limited to crusading per se, however, the papers put it into its wider context and examine other aspects of contact, such as trade, interfaith relations, and geographical exploration.